Immunology & Inflammation

Immune system and inflammatory processes are highly complex, and several hundred genes have established roles in these processes. Cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and their receptors, downstream signaling pathway genes, and transcription factors coordinate diverse functions of the immune system. Toll-like receptor and associated adapter and downstream signaling genes are involved in pathogen sensing. Interferons, interferon receptors and regulatory factors, and a variety of interferon response genes are involved in host anti-viral defense. Other genes play a role in specialized functions of the various immune cell types, such as antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells and antigen presenting cells, differentiation and activation of T and B cells, and responses of cytotoxic and helper (Th1, Th2, Th17) T cells. Genes with pro- or anti-apoptotic effects in immune or targeted host cells are also involved. Still others regulate functions including innate and adaptive immunity, T cell anergy and immune tolerance, autoimmunity, acute phase response, complement activation, and inflammation. Many of these genes are acutely upregulated due to cell damage, injury, or infection to promote and eventually resolve the inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation, the expression of these cytokines and receptors at low levels over long periods of time, promotes various pathological conditions including allergies and asthma, cardiovascular system disorders such as atherosclerosis, central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, fibrosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Autoimmune disease (Allergy, Asthma, Arthritis, and others)

Immune Cell Activity or Development

Immune Cell Signaling


Transplant rejection